SPECIALISED POWER GENERATION SOLUTIONS

We offer a range of custom built stand-by generators ranging from 150–2200kVA with prime movers being Perkins, Volvo, John Deere, MTU and Daewoo-Doosan on the larger sizes. Stamford, Marelli or Leroy Somer alternators are used across the range. We manufacture natural gas motors according to ISO3046 up to 400kW, manufacturing automatic mains failure and standard key start control panels, trailers for mobile units (SABS APPROVED), sound and weatherproof canopy sets and sound attenuation of plant rooms.

Our fully equipped Generator Test Bay in the Manufacturing Division ensures all equipment undergoes the relevant test methods and procedures to meet full compliance in the marketplace.The test facility has been equipped to conduct full mechanical load testing, which allows your motor’s real power to be rigorously tested, as temperature rises and where full load current and full load speed are accurately measured up to 2000Amps to achieve efficiency in the equipment.

Highlights

• Sound and excellent build quality.
• Flexible lead times to meet customer needs.
• Fully customised attenuation and exhaust systems.
• We have a team of technical experts that are available for assistance in design and development of genset and back-up power systems.
• We have the ability to offer site installation and commissioning through a preferred installer.

Warranty

• 1 year warranty and maintenance with purchase.
• Additional maintenance contract is available.

INDUSTRIAL POWER GENERATORS

Our diesel powered generator sets are the first choice when it comes to standby and emergency power systems. Our generators are powered by Perkins diesel engines but are also available in Volvo and Cummins and can be manufactured with a choice of Stamford, Mecc Alte and Leroy Somer alternators.

In addition our generator sets can be fully customised to deliver the versatility, reliability and efficiency you require.

Product Details

The canopies are designed using high density flameproof foam to ensure low noise levels.
The enclosures are powder coated and weatherproofed to withstand the harshest environments.

The user-friendly Deepsea Controllers make these generators leaders in the field.

• Units can also be built onto trailers, for mobile solutions.
• Product requires standard maintenance.
• Maintenance contracts available.

Power Engine Phase / Voltage Fuel Tank Control Panel Product Code
Prime Standby Perkins Phases Current Volt Capacity Consumption Type Code
(kW) (kVA) (kW) (kVA) Model (Amps*) VAC Litres L/h @ Prime
18.5 20 20.4 22.5 404D-22G 3 25 380/400 400 6.2 AMF VATS-20 L14426
26 30 29 33 1103A-33G 3 40 380/400 400 8.6 AMF VATS-30 L14427
40 45 44 50 1103A-33TG1 3 63 380/400 550 12.9 AMF VATS-45 L14428
53 60 59 66 1103A-33TG2 3 85 380/400 550 15.7 AMF VATS-60 L14429
58 65 64 72 1104-44TG1 3 90 380/400 650 17.7 AMF VATS-65 L14430
71 80 78 88 1104A-44TG2 3 110 380/400 650 18.7 AMF VATS-80 L14431
89 100 98 110 1104C-44TAG2 3 140 380/400 650 22.6 AMF VATS-100 L14432
108 135 134 150 1006TAG 3 165 380/400 650 33.3 AMF VATS-135 L14433
Open Build 20KVA - 150kVA
Power Engine Phase / Voltage Fuel Tank Control Panel Product Code
Prime Standby Perkins Phases Current Volt Capacity Consumption Type Code
(kW) (kVA) (kW) (kVA) Model (Amps*) VAC Litres L/h @ Prime
18.5 20 20.4 22.5 404D-22G 3 25 380/400 400 6.2 AMF VATS-20 L14434
26 30 29 33 1103A-33G 3 40 380/400 400 8.6 AMF VATS-30 L14435
40 45 44 50 1103A-33TG1 3 63 380/400 550 12.9 AMF VATS-45 L14436
53 60 59 66 1103A-33TG2 3 85 380/400 550 15.7 AMF VATS-60 L14437
58 65 64 72 1104-44TG1 3 90 380/400 650 17.7 AMF VATS-65 L14438
71 80 78 88 1104A-44TG2 3 110 380/400 650 18.7 AMF VATS-80 L14439
89 100 98 110 1104C-44TAG2 3 140 380/400 650 22.6 AMF VATS-100 L14440
108 135 134 150 1006TAG 3 165 380/400 650 33.3 AMF VATS-135 L14441
Note:
• Detailed required specifications to be submitted with your enquiry.
• Please confirm lead time.
• All specifications to be confirmed at time the order is placed. Product is made to specifications.
• Normal operating current cannot be greater than 60% of the Full Load Current.
• Current ratings based on engine manufacturer’s prime power ratings with no deration taken into account
Product Details
• The generator is powered by a diesel engine, with a dingol alternator.
• Automatic start and stop.
• Temperature switch off.
• Use diesel and lubrication oil as per specifications of
generator operations manual.
• The generator is mounted on a solid steel base frame fixed by bolts with sound proof (<70dB) canopy.
• Control box is built on the generator set.
• Automatic transfer switch included.
• Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR)
• Comes on wheels.
Warranty
• Warranty valid 1 year from date of delivery or 1000 duty
hours.
Working Conditions
• Ambient temperature: -20°C +60°C
• Relative humidity: ≤80%
Technical Specifications

5kVA - 1 Phase 7.5kVA - 1 Phase 7.5kVA - 3 Phase
Product Code L4404 L4405 L4406
Standby Power 5KVA 7.5KVA 7.5KVA
Voltage Rating 230V 230V 230/400V
Rated Speed 3000 3000 3000
Nominal Frequency 50Hz 50Hz 50Hz
Power Factor (PF) 0.8 0.8 0.8
Net Weight (kg) 158 167 170
Net Dimensions (mm) 970 x 560 x 770 970 x 560 x 770 970 x 560 x 770
Amperage Rating (FLC) 21A 30A 18A/phase
Engine Power 186FA 187FA 188FA
Note:
  • FLC = Full Load Current.
  • Normal operating current cannot be greater than 60% of the Full Load Current.
  • CHOOSING YOUR UPS

    In general the diffusion of UPS systems derives from an increasingly greater dependence on electrical energy and the need to protect sophisticated equipment, data and processes that are critical for companies. Power electronics is involved and focused to the design and development of static UPS systems with increasingly higher performance levels that allow for adequate energy savings and a lower environmental impact.

    Power Solutions

    Today there is an increasingly pressing need for a continuous, quality power

    supply. Indeed the devices to power up have an increasingly key, critical role for businesses, for people’s safety, for data storage and processing and for communications.

    After all, these functions are carried out by sophisticated and sensitive devices that may be affected by the disturbance coming from the mains power supply.There are various types of electrical events that constantly endanger electronic equipment, as there are various effects on the availability of the loads (for instance computer systems):

    Disturbance Description Effects

    Brown-out Brief drop in voltage levels. This is the most common disturbance (even 87%) due to the power supply and is caused by the activation of electric devices such as motors, compressors, lifts and freight lifts. Reduction of the power required by a computer to be able to operate correctly, which causes the keyboard to stop working or unexpected system crashes, resulting in loss and damage of the data being processed.

    Power failure A power failure means that there is no power supply at all. It can be due to an excessive demand of electrical energy, storms, ice on the power lines, road accidents, excavations, earthquakes, etc. The effects that a loss of data may involve include an interruption of communications, no lighting, stopped production lines, an interruption of business activities, hazards for people, etc.

    Spike A spike, or voltage transient, is a sudden surge in voltage. Spikes are generally caused by lightening and can also occur then the mains supply is restored after a power failure. It may also affect electronic devices via the mains supply, serial lines or telephone lines and damage or completely destroy components and cause a permanent loss of data.

    Overvoltage This is a short voltage increase, typically lasting 1/120 of a second. Overvoltage may be caused by very powerful
    electric motors, such as air conditioning systems. When these
    turn off, the excess voltage is dissipated on the electric line.
    Computers and other highly sensitive electric devices require variable voltage within a certain tolerance field. Any voltage value greater than the peak value or effective voltage levels (this can be considered as the average voltage) stresses delicate components and causes premature failure.

    EMI/RFI noise The noise due to electromagnetic interference and radio interference changes the sinusoid generated by the mains supply. It is generated by various factors and phenomena, including lightening, load switching, generators, radio transmitters and industrial equipment. The noise may be intermittent or constant and introduces transients, errors and problems in the computer data or in telecommunications. It can also lead to malfunctions in various electrical devices.

    Parasitic and harmonic currents Generated by atmospheric disturbances or changes, load variations, current generators, electromagnetic emissions and industrial systems. These disturbances cause errors in the execution of software programs, early deterioration of computers and the data they contain, malfunctions in various types of electric devices.

    Frequency variations They generally occur in the energy produced by power- supply units. These variations cause errors in the execution of calculations, interpretation issues related to magnetic supports (discs, tapes, etc.), various kinds of problems associated with electromechanical applications.
    UPS Technologies and EN62040-3 Classification
    There are various types of static UPS systems on the market, such as: Off-Line, Line-Interactive, On-Line, Double Conversion, Digital On-Line, In-Line, etc.
    Most of these names are predominantly associated with marketing needs and decisions rather than the technology employed. In general there are three types of systems:
    Off-line (VD) Off-Line
    When the mains supply is on, the output is identical to the input. The UPS attends only when there is no input voltage and powers the load using the inverter, which in turn is powered by the batteries.

    Line-Interactive (VI) Line-Interactive
    When the mains supply is on, the input and output are separated by a filtering and stabilisation circuit (AVR: Automatic Voltage Regulator), but some of the disturbances and waveform variations that may be at the input may be found at the output.
    As in Off-line systems, when there is a power failure, the output is connected to the inverter, which in turn is powered by the batteries.

    On-line double conversion (VFI) On-Line Double Conversion
    The input is first rectified and then re-converted into alternating current with an inverter.
    This way the output voltage waveform is totally independent from the input.
    All potential mains disturbances are eliminated and there is no transient time switching from the mains to the battery, as the output is always powered by the inverter.
    In the event of overloads or other eventual problems, this type of UPS has an automatic Bypass that ensures the load is powered by switching it directly at the input.
    To identify the best-suited UPS for your needs, it is important to carefully
    examine the features of the application to be protected.
    Every UPS offers specific benefits depending on the application for which it is designed.
    It is not enough to consider only the power absorbed by the load!
    The fact that a UPS has enough power to supply the effective load does not ensure it is an adequate choice.
    The EN 62040-3 standard defines the classification of the UPS based on its
    performance.
    EN 62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
    The first part of the classification (XXX) defines the type of UPS:
    • VFI (Voltage and Frequency Independent): this UPS has an output that is independent from supply voltage variations (mains) and frequency variations are controlled within the limits required by the IEC EN 61000- 2-2 standard.
    • VFD (Voltage and Frequency Dependent): this UPS has an output that depends on the supply voltage variation (mains) and frequency variations.
    • VI (Voltage Independent): in this type of UPS the voltage supply
    variations are stabilised by electronic/passive regulating devices within the normal operating limits.
    The second part of the classification code (YY) defines the output waveform during normal operation or battery-powered operation:
    • SS: sinusoidal (THDu ‹ 8%),
    • XX: sinusoidal with linear load, non-sinusoidal with distorting load
    (THDu › 8%),
    • YY: non-sinusoidal.
    The third part of the classification code (ZZZ) defines the dynamic performance of the output voltage in relation to the load variations occurring in three different conditions:
    • 111 variation of the operating modes (normal and battery-based),
    • 112 insertion of the step-based linear load in normal or battery-based mode,
    • 113 insertion of the step-based non-linear loadin normal or battery- based mode.
    EN 62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
    The UPS systems with the best performance are classified as: VFI SS 111
    XXX YY ZZZ
    Output dependence from the Input Output waveform Output dynamic performance
    VFI SS 111
    VI XX 112
    VFD YY 113
    Choosing the UPS

    To choose the correct UPS size, it is necessary to know the following parameters:

  • Active and reactive power: this is the UPS’ maximum power output expressed in VA.
  • ACTIVE power: this is the UPS’ maximum power output expressed in W.
  • Power Factor (PF): this is the ratio between active and active and reactive power.
  • Back-up Time: this is the maximum amount of time for which the UPS can supply energy without mains.
  • Power supply characteristics: these are the number of phases and the voltage and frequency values of the power supply line.
  • Output power supply characteristics: these are the number of phases and the voltage and frequency values of the UPS output line.
  • Clearly the input parameters must be compatible with the mains and the output parameters must be compatible with the loads to be powered and protected.

    As for the discrepancies from acceptable nominal values, one of the few clear and internationally acknowledged notes regarding the power supply of electronic devices (namely computer-based equipment) is the ITIC (Information Technology Industry Council) curve.This represents the updated version of the CBEMA (Computer Business Electronic Manufacturer’s Association) note, also implemented in the ANSI/IEEE Standard 446-1995:“IEEE Recommended practice for emergency and stand-by power for industrial and commercial applications”.

    The ITIC immunity curve (formerly known as the CBEMA curve) was created with an exclusive reference to Information Technology Equipment (ITE), i.e. basically PCs and similar products, and is based on a simple assessment on the width (higher or lower than the nominal voltage) and the duration of the disturbance of the power supply voltage.

    These curves indicate the percentage voltage variations in relation to the nominal value (230V) that are accepted by the devices powered in relation to the duration of these variations.

    In the figure, the white area represents all the situations in which the device is not affected by the voltage variation. Instead the coloured areas represent situations where they may lead to malfunctions or even failures.

    Simply, it is evident that the greater the voltage variation the shorter the time the electronic devices can tolerate it without being affected.

    Possible Application for the Various Types of UPS Systems
    By combining the operating features of the UPS systems and knowing the features of the loads to be powered, it is possible to list and group the possible compatible applications for each type of UPS.

    Off-Line
    • PC Home.
    • Internet work stations.
    • Telephone switchboards.
    • Tills.
    • POS terminals.
    • Fax machines.
    • Small groups of emergency lights.
    • Industrial and domestic automation.

    Line-Interactive
    • Corporate computer networks.
    • Security systems.
    • Emergency systems.
    • Lighting systems.
    • Domestic and industrial automation.

    On-Line Double Conversion
    • Corporate IT network.
    • Telecommunications.
    • Electromedical sector.
    • Industrial automation.
    • Emergency systems.
    • Protection of dedicated lines.
    • Critical industrial/civil applications.
    • Upstream of power-supply units.
    • Any other possible application.
    Batteries

    Batteries are key for the UPS system: they ensure power supply continuity by providing energy to the inverter (for the necessary time) during a power failure. It is therefore essential to have them always connected, operational and charged. Batteries typically used in UPS systems are Sealed Lead Acid batteries (SLA) and Valve Regulated Lead Acid batteries (VRLA).

    This type of battery is hermetically sealed, does not require any maintenance and is based on internal gas recombination. As well as ensuring a greater operating life, this feature allows to install the UPS also in areas usually occupied by people. This type of battery needs very little ventilation (which can be calculated in accordance with the EN 50272-2
    standard) and this does not usually require special aeration and ventilation
    studies.

    Batteries

    Moreover, Lead batteries can provide high current levels and operate discontinuously without necessarily reaching the end of discharge, without being affected by a “memory effect” like other types of batteries.

    Battery manufacturers declare the “Expected Life Time” of batteries.

    The most common cases for SLA batteries are: 5-6 years (Standard Life batteries) and 10-12 years (Long Life batteries).

    This is an indicative value and is referred to standard working and environmental conditions that may not necessarily coincide with batteries’ real operating conditions.

    As for their the chemical nature in energy is storing and supplying, batteries are very sensitive to environmental conditions and to how they are used.

    In particular, high temperatures can drastically reduce batteries’ life.

    In general, the nominal operating temperature of VRLA Batteries is 20- 25°C, for every 10°C the life expectancy is halved.

    As for their use, the duration and intensity of the discharges and recharges influence the batteries’ life. Excessively intense or low currents, very long and deep discharges, intense and prolonged recharges, etc. can reduce batteries’ life and even damage them.

    To avoid these phenomena, modern UPS systems have sophisticated battery management algorithms that optimise their use by monitoring and dynamically adapting voltages and currents in order to prevent deep discharges and conduct effective and safe recharges. As well as extending their life, a “smart” battery management also allows to constantly monitor their status and reduces consumption levels associated with their recharge.

    Due to the phenomenon of self-discharge, batteries age and deteriorate even when they are not used for extended periods of time.To avoid incurring a permanent loss of their capacity, it is recommended to not leave the batteries disconnected for more than 6-10 months. After this time, even new batteries that were initially in good condition may have recharging problems. In addition to self-discharge, also storage temperature negatively affects batteries’ life.

    Modern UPS systems allow to prevent this issue by managing to keep the batteries charged even when they are off (battery recharge in stand-by). So even when not used, one just needs to keep the UPS connected to the mains to keep the batteries active and alive.

    To perform its functions the UPS must always be connected to the batteries and promptly report any disconnection or malfunctioning. Modern UPS systems have various automatic battery testing and monitoring functions and are able to inform the user about possible faults in order to prevent any problems even before the batteries reach the end of their life. However, we recommend conducting periodical checks and maintenance on the batteries (at least once a year). It is also advisable to get a new set of batteries before they run out.

    When choosing the batteries, to reach a certain back-up time it is important to also consider the recharging time. Of course, with UPS systems with the same nominal power, the greater the back-up time, the higher the number of batteries and, as a result, the longer the recharge time. To evaluate the right amount of batteries, it is recommended calculating the back-up time based on the actual load to protect, rather than the nominal power of the UPS.

    Smart Charge - Advanced Battery Management

    To ensure power supply continuity in the event of a power failure, the batteries must be charged and in good condition.Therefore, a part of the energy absorbed by the UPS must be directed to charging the batteries. This is an additional consumption that cannot be eliminated.To reduce and optimise the cost of charging the batteries, UPS systems with an intelligent charging system (Smart Charge) are used.

    This system is based on the direct measurement of the operating parameters (voltage and current) of the batteries and their variations in order to monitor the status of the battery in real time.The recharge follows a cycle consisting of several stages, whose duration and intensity depends on the state of the batteries.This advanced battery charge system has the benefit of having a fast charging time and the batteries are always charged constantly monitored.

    At the same time this system does not stress the batteries, because when they reach their full charge, the charging intensity decreases until it reaches zero. In other words, the smart battery charge system optimises energy absorption by limiting it to the amount actually required by the real charging status of the batteries. Moreover, it has the additional effect of extending the batteries’ performance and life.

    Intelligent battery charge system (Smart Battery Charger)

    The “Smart Charger” three-stage intelligent charging system considerably extends batteries’ life by even 50%, thereby halving the number of times they need to be replaced and environmental pollution due to their disposal.

    Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total
    Standard Charging System
    1.00 1.00 2.00
    Smart Charger
    1.00
    1.00
    Savings 50%

    The Cost of Downtime

    Calculating the economic impact caused by potential downtime may seem a complicated task. As a matter of fact, the productivity of modern companies is closely associated with that of information systems, so often unavailable information systems lead to downtime.To get an idea of the cost of downtime due to electrical issues, one just needs to multiply the unavailable time by the cost of the salaries of employees that depend on the system and add the lost profit (total profit/unavailability time). These costs must then be added to any costs required to restore the system, which instead depend on the frequency of the events and on how serious they are.

    The main players in the UPS market have a number of distinguishing

    features, which need to be considered before making a choice: from the commitment in the Research and Development of power protection solutions to the focus on low energy consumption and the compliance with environmental regulations to the solutions aiming at reducing running costs and increasing flexibility and, in some cases, the compact design and appearance of the devices.

    From a marketing point of view, customer satisfaction, maintenance processes (which must involve periodical technical check-ups), how fast support services are provided are clearly key elements and true distinguishing elements of the product offer. Basically UPS systems have three features: Safety, Reliability and Availability.

    Distributed Architecture

    Distributed architecture is used in cases where the application to be protected is not particularly critical and when there are logistics issues (for instance:
    several rooms, pre-existing system, etc.).
    Benefits Drawbacks
    It is possible to use existing wall sockets. Complex management and monitoring: several UPS systems located in different areas.
    Special sizing for the individual loads to be protected. Long and complex maintenance: for instance, battery control and replacement to be
    conducted on many systems at different times.
    Small independent UPS systems next to the loads to be protected. Emergency shutdown to be managed for each machine.
    Special expansion units or new parts for each individual UPS work station. Difficulty in achieving redundancy.
    Existing UPS systems can be retained and used together with new ones. Higher running and maintenance costs. Greater electrical consumption.
    A Dedicated UPS for each System Load

    Centralised Architecture

    Centralised architecture is a preferable solution to protect the entire structure:
    Benefits Drawbacks
    Just one system to install and manage (simpler and more convenient than several small systems) A single system may represent a un single point of failure (critical nature of the distribution).
    This can be avoided with redundant installations with a resulting increase in costs.
    A single system to maintain (easier and more economical than many small systems). The UPS is usually far away from the load to be protected.
    Greater longevity for both the UPS and the Batteries. Greater overall dimensions.
    Greater energy efficiency (lower electric consumption). Installation and wiring costs, together with costs to extend the back-up time can be high.
    The UPS is generally placed in a safe and protected utility room with optimal environmental conditions. Installation and maintenance must generally be conducted by specialised technical personnel.
    A single UPS to protect several system loads

    Modular Architecture
    Modular architecture is an interesting solution to protect a company’s key areas. The modules are UPS systems that contribute all together to powering
    the load:
    Benefits Drawbacks
    All the benefits of centralised architecture. The initial purchase cost may be higher.
    Easy to achieve internal redundancy by adding one or more modules. Installation and maintenance may need to be conducted by specialised technical personnel.
    Easier and faster installation and expandability
    compared with the centralised solution.
    Greater overall dimensions compared to distributed architecture.
    Easier and faster to maintain and repair.
    More compact compared to the centralised solution
    (especially in case of redundancy).

    With modular UPS systems the configurations can be changed to increase the back-up time and power without replacing the machine.

    A GUIDE TO CHOOSING YOUR UPS

    Granular Modular Architecture

    Granularity consists in having compact modules with low power levels order to let the system less sensitive against the malfunction of an individual module.

    Benefits Drawbacks
    Easier and faster installation, maintenance and expandability compared with the Modular solution. The initial purchase cost may be higher.
    Easy to achieve internal redundancy and immunity against failures. A single module involves a small power loss in relation to the nominal power.
    In the event of a failure, minimal downtime for non-redundant configurations.
    Greater energy efficiency, lower consumption.
    Accurate and optimal sizing: with small modules it is easier to attain the actual power of the load.

    System Size

    To obtain a uninterruptible power supply– and therefore suitable sized in relation to the load to be protected – it is necessary to clearly identify various aspects.
    This will allow us to achieve the best integration of all the parts that make up the source itself.

    The elements required to size the UPS correctly are:
    • Maximum power of the load to be protected.
    • Performance of the UPS to be used.
    • Features of the UPS system’ input circuit.
    • Any additional energy sources.

    The power of the UPS input must have is the result of the sum of the UPS’
    power plus the “lost” power generated by its performance.
    The conversion efficiency of the UPS must always be declared by the manufacturer of the UPS itself. Usually the declared efficiency does not consider the charging of the batteries, which would involve an increase in the amount of power absorbed. However, this is negligible considering that normally UPS systems are never used at full load but often at around
    75-80%.
    The vast majority of UPS systems do not have a correct absorption. Indeed, as they are non-linear loads, they can cause disturbances to the mains itself. These disturbances are caused by harmonics generated by input circuits that have not been set up correctly. Therefore the plant engineer must also take into account this aspect, especially when it is recommended to choose a UPS with a limited THDi value of about 3% max.

    This is only allowed in UPS systems with input PFCs (Power Factor Corrector).
    Sizing with Power-Supply Units

    Power-supply units may show malfunctions if associated with a UPS without a input PFC circuit, as an harmonic distortion of the current could cause considerable disturbance to the alternator, which could lead to a shutdown.

    For conventional UPS systems, to avoid this potential issue it is necessary to use a generator 1.5 times or twice the size in relation to the power of the UPS, which would result in wasted energy and money. Therefore also in this case it is necessary to examine the architecture of the UPS systems correctly.

    When determining the size of an electrical system, special attention should be placed on selecting the cables. Indeed, it is necessary to take account various elements such as voltage, current, the length of the line, the ambient temperature and the intended type of installation.

    The IEC 60364 standard defines the capacities of the conductors to be used for fixed installations and takes into account the elements listed above.

    Size of the Neutral Cable

    In three-phase distribution systems, where UPS systems with high harmonic distortion or no input PFC circuit are used, there is often strong unbalance on the line, which results in the need for an oversized neutral cable.

    So a UPS with a correct and balanced absorption requires a neutral conductor with a smaller cross-section. In single-phase systems the size of the neutral cable does not represent an issue, as it must have the same cross-section of the phase conductor.

    Size of the Protective Device with Circuit Breaker

    Typically, UPS systems with On-Line double conversion technology (VFI) are fitted with a bypass circuit which, in the event of a UPS failure or overload, automatically connect the load directly to the mains. In this case, the size of the upstream circuit breaker must take into account the UPS’ maximum allowed current overload.

    Size of the Protective Device Fitted with a Fuse

    Normally all UPS systems already have an integrated input fuse protection with current values adequately set by the manufacturer. Therefore it is not necessary to fit an additional protection of this type in the system.

    CHOOSING YOUR UPS

    Protection with Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

    In cases where it is necessary to use earth leakage protections on the load is important that the UPS does not alter the output neutral/earth arrangement in relation to the arrangement at the input. The preservation of the neutral/earth arrangement is certainly guaranteed in UPS systems with a Feed-through Neutral cable, where the input neutral coincides with the output neutral.

    When using earth leakage protections, one must consider that all electric devices employ internal EMC filters, which generate small leakage currents to earth.When they are summed up and added to the UPS’ leakage current, they may cause an ill-timed intervention of the differential. In this regard, to achieve a greater selectivity on the system, we recommend using 0.03A residual current devices on the UPS output to protect the loads against indirect contact and use 0.3A or more powerful residual current devices upstream of the UPS.

    This way the loads are protected by the switches downstream of the UPS and the leakage currents of the loads (even if added to the leakage currents of the UPS) will never cause the protection upstream of the UPS to intervene at the wrong time.

    Power Conversion Efficiency

    Electronic power conversion circuits (PFC Rectifier and Inverter) certainly represent the main components of the UPS.The energy transferred to the load passes through these circuits, which are therefore particularly stressed from both an electrical and thermal point of view.The process of converting energy requires energy and the losses due to parasitic effects are added to this process. Usually, except for battery chargers, conversion circuits are the ones that use the highest amount of energy in the UPS.

    To reduce and optimise this consumption, latest generation UPS systems employ high efficiency and high performance electronic components (IGBT-Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) that ensure a high quality energy conversion with very low consumption levels and compact overall dimensions.

    Using IGBTs allows to employ high frequency monitoring and control technologies (PWM-Pulse Width Modulation).This means transformers are not required (Transformerless technologies) and the use of passive filters is reduced to a minimum.
    The drastic reduction of these elements removes all the losses occurring in iron and copper parts and considerably reduces the overall dimensions, weight and costs of the UPS. Moreover, by reducing losses also the heat that needs to be removed is reduced.This means that also cooling and ventilation systems require less energy and are lighter and more compact.
    The European Code of Conduct published in 2007 defines the minimum efficiency levels based on the size and load levels for the new UPS systems launched on the market.

    Mode UPS Range from 1-1-2008 to 31-12-2009
    ≥10 - < 20kVA ≥ 20 -
    < 40kVA
    ≥ 40 -
    < 200kVA
    ≥ 200kVA
    25% of nominal
    power
    83% 84% 86.5% 89%
    50% of nominal
    power
    89% 89.5% 90.5% 92%
    75% of nominal
    power
    90.5% 91% 92% 93%
    100% of nominal
    power
    91% 91.5% 92% 93%
    Note:

    Normal mode Minimum efficiency measured according to EN 62040-3

    Efficiency and Size

    Latest-generation static UPS systems place a special focus on the energy drawn from the mains supply and the one provided to the equipment to be powered, as the main cause of wasted energy depends precisely on the overall performance of the system.
    The performance is also related to the system’s usage percentage (and increases as this percentage increase). So special attention must be placed on the accurate sizing of the UPS, as an oversized system also has negative economic effects on electrical consumption, along with higher initial costs.

    One must also consider that in many applications, the load may not be constant but vary throughout the day and week. In these cases it is not enough to have a high efficiency at the nominal power, because for most of its life, the UPS operates with lower loads.
    In general the best solution is to choose a UPS with a high performance as constant as possible also with load percentages below 50%, as shown in the figure.This why the performance of the UPS does not depend on the actual load connected.

    Batteries, too, influence the overall performance of the UPS System. Indeed, they need to be charged after being used during a power failure and kept charged when the mains voltage is on. So part of the energy absorbed by the UPS is delivered to the batteries with additional heat loss and dissipation.To reduce the consumption of energy associated with the batteries to a minimum, the battery chargers must have an efficient electronics controlled with intelligent software algorithms based on the actual conditions of the batteries.
    Intelligent charging, management and monitoring algorithms allow to charge the batteries accurately and effectively, thereby reducing consumption, limiting the charging time and using the batteries in the best possible way. Using the batteries properly extends their life, with resulting savings on the number of times the batteries need to be replaced during the life of the UPS.
    Another solution to consumption associated with the batteries is to determine the system’s back-up time in relation to the actual load to be powered up for the entire duration of the power failure. In addition to the resulting energy savings, a correct battery size also leads to lower installation and maintenance costs, along with a smaller overall dimensions.

    Power Factor and Harmonic Distortion

    An almost unity power factor at the input (PFC = 0.99 already with a load of just 20%) and a low harmonic distortion (THD ‹3%) ensure a minimal impact on the mains and a high level of energy efficiency that results in lower energy management costs.

    Indeed, the more the power factor moves away from the unity value, the greater the reactive power absorbed by the mains, leading to higher operator tariffs. Plus, the reduction in resulting voltage drops substantially limits the waste of energy.

    The correction of the power factor also removes the need to implement a power factor correction system and to increase the size of a potential power-supply unit upstream, which in the past had to be at least 30% of the UPS’nominal power.This allows for additional savings related to installation of the uninterruptible power supply system. A high power

    factor also determines a reduction of the losses on the conductors due to a lower intensity of the circulating current.

    Moreover, a careful control of the current absorbed by the mains (PFC) allows to achieve a very low harmonic distortion of the input current (THD ‹3%).The harmonic distortion caused by non-linear loads on power supply lines means that the currents in the system are higher than expected and that they contain harmonic frequency components: a phenomenon that may be seriously underestimated because these are currents that cannot be measured with standard portable instruments supplied to maintenance personnel.

    Even if the current remains within the capacity of the overload protection device, the conductors operate at higher temperatures and cause a waste of energy generally equal to 2-3% of the overall load.

    UPS MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION

    Very often UPS systems require remote communication to allow for faster and more effective diagnostics during the various operating stages and quick maintenance operations.

    These functions may be obtained by fitting the equipment with communication boards and network interface cards and providing additional monitoring services to ensure maximum safety and peace of mind for the customer.

    Local Protection

    To protect an individual computer (server or work station) and its relative devices, one just needs to use a RS232 or a USB connection and install the management software on the system to be protected. If your computer is connected to an IP network you can also receive the UPS’ alarm messages on your computer via pop-up messages and e-mails and graphically view operational data through specific monitoring programs. The benefit of this type of management is that implementation costs are very low, but there is a limitation: the UPS must be installed near the system to be protected.

    Extension of the Local Protection

    If there is a higher number of computers to be controlled, it is possible to use the solution described above. However, a special software “agent” must be installed on the other computers.This receives and executes controls sent from the computer interfaced with the UPS.

    Again in this case implementation costs are very low, but if the computer interfaced with the UPS shuts down (fault, maintenance, updates, etc.), the management system is completely prevented from operating.

    As a result, one can no longer receive the alarm messages and this endangers the integrity of the remaining computers

    Integration into the IP Network

    This type of installation requires that the UPS is connected to a special network interface inside which the software is installed.The network interface card is in turn connected to the IP network. As the UPS is connected directly to the IP network, its management system is able to send e-mails and pop-up messages, and turn computers on and off. The protection of the various computers is ensured by installing a software agent that receives the controls from the network interface of the UPS.

    This solution has a number of benefits:

  • The UPS can be installed even far away from the systems that it needs to protect.
  • The whole management no longer depends on a single computer and this effectively ensures the safety of all the connected devices.
  • The data can be viewed from any web browser without having to install special software.
  • Managing Several UPS Systems

    To manage several UPS systems it is necessary to use a software application that can continuously monitor even a large number of UPS systems installed locally or in remotely.

    All the alarms generated by the UPS through their respective management systems are intercepted through the IP network by this application.
    This stores the alarms in a database and sends a series of pop-up messages and e-mails to operators who, by connecting themselves via online browsers, are able to quickly identify the UPS that generated the alarm and carry out a full and efficient diagnosis.

    A typical example of how this application is used is represented by a financial institution:

  • A UPS is installed in each branch and controlled by one of management systems described earlier.This manages and protects the local network.
  • The various local networks are permanently connected with each other.
  • In the head office there is the monitoring station that continuously monitors all the UPS systems.
  • The advantage of this solution lies in using a standard monitoring and alarm reception system that allows to manage any UPS without having to know its IP address.

    Environmental Monitoring

    There are situations where the monitoring service carried out by the UPS is not enough and it is necessary to also control the surrounding environment.

    By using network interfaces it is possible to monitor – through a dedicated analogue sensor – the temperature and humidity of the room or of a specific rack cabinet and send e-mails or execute controls on remote machines if the value detected falls outside the preset limits. If there is the need to use more than one sensor it is possible to interpose a special device which allows to connect up to 8 UPS systems between

    the interface and the sensor itself. Historical data on the trends of the values detected by the sensors is stored in a special log file, which can be displayed graphically or exported to be analysed and filed at a later stage.
    It is also possible to monitor the status of digital inputs (for instance door opening microswitches or fault signalling contacts of the air-conditioning system) and control hardware devices such as, for example, signal lights or sirens: once again it is possible to send e-mails or run controls on remote computers.

    NIKY AND NIKY-S UPS SYSTEMS

    Niky Line Interactive UPS - Single phase VI
    UPS with IEC Multi-Socket Outlets
    Ideal protection for small office and home office applications

    This range offers the best quality/price ratio for the safety of data in the office or the home.
    Microprocessor controlled and with an electronic Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) and an intelligent communication interface, they provide optimum protection management.

    • Advanced management according to battery discharge level
    • AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator)
    • Integrated self-diagnostics
    • Cold start function
    • Microprocessor control
    • RS232 or USB interface
    • MODEM/LAN telephone protection
    Model P Nominal power Active Power Backup Time No. of Sockets IEC Communication Ports Product Code
    (VA) (VA) (W) (min)
    310,002 10 600 300 5 to 30 3 USB L5637
    310,003 800 400 5 to 30 3 USB L5638
    310,004 1000 600 5 to 30 6 USB L5639
    310,005 15 1500 900 5 to 30 6 USB L5640
    Product Code L5637 L5638 L5639 L5640
    General Characteristics
    Nominal power (VA) 600 800 1000 1500
    Active power (W) 300 400 600 900
    Technology Line interactive VI
    Waveform Pseudo-sinusoidal
    Input Characteristics
    Input voltage 230V
    Input frequency 50-60Hz
    Input voltage range 160V-290V
    Output Characteristics
    Output voltage 230V ± 10%
    Output frequency (nominal) 50/60Hz +/-1%
    THD of output voltage ‹ 3% with linear load
    Batteries
    Number of batteries 1 1 2 2
    Battery range type/voltage 12 V, 7Ah 12 V, 9Ah 12 V, 7Ah 12 V, 9Ah
    Communication and management

    Screen and signalling One button and 2 LEDs for real-time control One button and 4 LEDs for real-time control
    Telephone protection RJ 11/RJ 45
    Remote control Available
    Mechanical characteristics

    Dimensions H x W x D (mm) 171 x 95 x 349 239 x 147 x 354
    Net weight (kg) 7 7.5 13 16
    Ambient Conditions
    Ambient operating temperature (°C) 0 to 40°C
    Relative humidity (%) 0 to 95%
    Noise at 1 m (dBA) ‹ 40
    Certifications
    Reference product standards EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
    Note: The backup times, expressed in minutes, are measured under optimum operating conditions.
    Niky S Line Interactive UPS - Single Phase VI-SS
    • Sinusoidal output
    • Microprocessor control
    • MODEM/LAN telephone protection
    • RS-232 or USB interface
    • Cold start function
    • Protection against voltage peaks
    • Integrated self-diagnostics
    • Intelligent battery management
    • Overload and short-circuit protection
    • Excellent voltage regulation
    Note: The backup times, expressed in minutes, are measured under optimum operating conditions.
    Model P Nominal power Active Power Backup Time No. of Sockets IEC Communication Ports Product Code
    (VA) (VA) (W) (min)
    310,006 10 1000 600 9 6 USB-RS 232 L5641
    310,020 15 1500 900 8 6 USB-RS 232 L5644
    310,007 2000 1200 9 6 USB-RS 232 L5642
    310,008 20 3000 1800 8 6 USB-RS 232 L5643
    Product Code L5641 L5644 L5642 L5643
    General Characteristics
    Nominal power (VA) 1000 1500 2000 3000
    Active power (W) 600 900 1200 1800
    Technology Line interactive VI-SS
    Waveform Sinusoidal
    Input Characteristics
    Input voltage 230V ± 12% via mains ± 5% via battery
    Input frequency 50-60Hz
    Input voltage range 160V-290V
    Output Characteristics
    Output voltage 230V ± 10%
    Output frequency (nominal) 50/60Hz +/-0.2%
    THD of output voltage < 3% with linear load
    Batteries
    Number of batteries 2 2 4 4
    Battery range type/voltage 12 V, 7Ah 12 V, 9Ah 12 V, 7Ah 12 V, 9Ah
    Communication and Management
    Screen and signalling Three buttons and three LEDs for real-time control of the status of the UPS
    Telephone protection RJ 11/RJ 45
    Remote control Available
    Mechanical Characteristics
    Dimensions H x W x D (mm) 247 x 173 x 369 247 x 173 x 465
    Net weight (kg) 13 15 22 24
    Ambient Conditions
    Ambient operating temperature (°C) 0 to 40°C
    Relative humidity (%) 0 to 95% non-condensing
    Noise at 1 m (dBA) < 40
    Certifications
    Reference product standards EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
    Note:
    The backup times, expressed in minutes, are measured under optimum operating conditions.

    DAKER DK UPS SYSTEMS

    Daker Dk Conventional Single Phase UPS - Single Phase online Double Conversion VFI
    UPS online double conversion can be used in both tower and rack configurations.

    Using the display it is possible to connect all the main system parameters and the state of the UPS, including the load level, remaining battery life and failures.

    Additional battery cabinets increase the autonomy of group continuity. A battery charger can be added to each battery cabinet for fast and secure charging.

    Tower version with additional battery cabinet
    Product Code T1134 T1135 T1136 T1137 T1139 T1138 T1140 T1141
    General characteristics
    Nominal power (VA) 1000 2000 3000 4500 6000 10000
    Active power (W) 800 1600 2400 4050 5400 9000
    Technology On-line double conversion VFI-SS-111
    Waveform Sinusoidal
    Architecture Convertible tower and 19" rack
    Input characteristics
    Input voltage 230 V
    Input frequency 50-60 Hz ± 5% autosensing
    Input voltage range 160 V - 288 V full load
    THD of input current ‹ 3%
    Input power factor › 0.99
    Compatibility with gensets Configurable for synchronism between the input and output frequencies, even for the highest frequency ranges, ± 14%
    Output characteristics
    Output voltage 230 V ± 1%
    Output frequency (nominal) 50/60 Hz (configurable via LCD panel) +/- 0.1%
    Peak factor 1:3
    THD of output voltage ‹ 3% with linear load
    Output voltage tolerance ± 1%
    Bypass Automatic bypass and optional external manual bypass


    Batteries
    Backup time extension Yes
    Number of batteries 3 6 6 20 - 20 - -
    Battery range type/voltage 12 V 7.2 Ah 12 V 7.2 Ah 12 V 9 Ah 12 V 5 Ah - 12 V 5 Ah - -
    Backup time (min) 10 10 8 6 - 4 - -
    Communication and management
    Screen and signalling Four buttons and four LEDs for real-time control of the status and the main parameters of the UPS
    Communication ports RS232 and USB serial ports RS232 serial ports
    Remote control Available
    Connector for network interface SNMP
    Back feed protection yes
    Emergency power off (EPO) yes
    Mechanical characteristics
    Dimensions (H x W x D) (mm) 440x88 (2U) x405 440x88 (2U) x650 440x88 (2U) x650 440x176 (4U) x680 440x88 (2U) x680 440x176 (4U) x680 440x88 (2U) x680 440x132 (3U) x680
    Net weight (kg) 16 29.5 30 60 25* 52 25* 26*
    Dimensions of battery cabinet
    (H x W x D) (mm)
    440x176 (4U) x405 440x88 (2U) x650 440x88 (2U) x650 - 440x132 (3U) x680 - 440x132 (3U) x680 440x132 (3U) x680
    Ambient conditions
    Operating temperature (°C) 0 ÷ 40°C
    Protection index IP 21
    Relative humidity (%) 20 to 80%
    Noise at 1 m (dBA) ‹ 50
    Heat dissipation (BTU/h) 490 654 818 982 1310
    1636
    Certifications
    Reference product standards EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3

    * Weight without batterie

    The main parameters of the UPS, including the battery charge level and faults, are displayed on the LCD screen on the front panel.

    The integrated communication software not only controls the UPS and its switch-off if there is a malfunction, and enables the user to test the main functions remotely, communicate via SNMP/Internet/network adaptor and access the functions of the UPS via the Internet, but can also send the user an SMS if specific events occur. The internal extension connector enables a WEB/SNMP card or a relay interface to be installed which provides insulated contacts for applications on industrial control panels or remote alarm panels.

    If there is an electronic fault, overload, overheating or for scheduled maintenance operations, the automatic or manual (optional) bypass ensures continuity of the power supply for critical loads. A bypass switch is available for maintenance.
    Convertible UPS with Batterie
    Model P Nominal power Active Power Backup Time Weight Product Code
    (BA) (VA) (W) (min) (kg)
    310,050 10 1000 800 10 16 T1134
    310,051 15 2000 1600 10 29.5 T1135
    310,052 20 3000 2400 8 30 T1136
    310,053
    4500 4050 6 60 T1137
    310,054 30 6000 5400 4 60 T1138
    Convertible UPS without Batteries
    Model P Nominal power Active Power Backup Time Weight Product Code
    (VA) (VA) (W) (min) (kg)
    310,056
    4500 4050 - 25 T1139
    310,057 30 6000 5400 - 25 T1140
    310,058 40 10000 9000 - 26 T1141
    Battery Cabinet (with Batteries)
    Model Description Product Code
    310,769 Battery cabinet for 3 100 50 (12 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1142
    310,770 Battery cabinet for 3 100 51 (12 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1143
    310,771 Battery cabinet for 3 100 52 (12 x 12 V, 9 Ah batteries) T1144
    310,772 Battery cabinet for 3 100 56 and 3 100 57 (20 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1145
    310,766 Battery cabinet for 3 100 58 (20 x 12 V, 9 Ah batteries) T1146
    Battery Cabinet (Empty)
    Model Description Product Code
    310,750 Battery cabinet for 3 100 50 (for 12 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1147
    310,751 Battery cabinet for 3 100 51 (for 12 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1148
    310,752 Battery cabinet for 3 100 52 (for 12 x 12 V, 9 Ah batteries) T1149
    310,753 Battery cabinet for 3 100 56 and 3 100 57 (for 20 x 12 V, 7.2 Ah batteries) T1150
    310,754 Battery cabinet for 3 100 58 (for 20 x 12 V, 9 Ah batteries) T1151
    Miscellaneous Accessories
    Model Description Product Code
    310,950 Additional 200 W charger (for Daker DK 1000-2000-3000) T1152
    310,954 Additional 1000 W charger (for Daker DK 4500-6000-10000) T1153
    310,952 Rack support bracket kit T1154
    310,953 External manual bypass (for Daker DK 1000-2000-3000) T1155
    310,969 Volt-free contact card T1156
    Three Standard Sizes for Power up to 10kVA

    The UPS and additional battery cabinets are available in sizes ranging from 2 to 4 units, depending on the required power and backup time.

    Reversible Screen

    With the reversible screen, the Daker DK UPS can be used in both tower and 19” rack configuration.

    One or Three-Phase Modular UPS

    ARCHMOD

  • Efficiency up to 95% when operating inON LINE MODE
  • Plug-in modules with self-configuring Plug&Play system
  • Power factor at the input close to 1 at 20% load
  • Multiple I/O to obtain different three-phase/single phase configurations as required
  • TRIMOD

    The totally modular design of TRIMOD UPS enables each power module to be programmed to obtain the requires I/O configuration.

    It is possible to have three-phase or single phase volteage inputs and outputs to obtain one of the following configurations:

  • three-phase/three-phase
  • three-phase/single-phase
  • single-phase/three-phase
  • single-phase/single-phase
  • It is also possible to have a single-phase and three-phase output lines simultaneously, or several single phase of different powers(optional).